House Framing Laying Out Walls, Doors, and
In conventional framing, the bottom and top plates are cut and laid
in place on the foundation, after the foundation is popped out. At
this time, the wall studs, windows and doors can be laid out and
marked on the plates. The studs are normally laid out on 16 inch or
24 inch on center. This means that from the center of one stud to
the center of the next is either 16 inches or 24 inches. These
dimensions are normally used because exterior sheathing, siding,
and drywall come in 4x8 ft sheets and work with 16 inch or 24 inch
It's a good idea to layout the doors and windows before the studs.
The rough openings for the doors and windows are supplied by the
manufacturer. For instance, a 2668 interior door might have a
rough opening width of 32 inches and a rough opening height of 82
1/2 inches. A 3050 window depending on the manufacturer might
have a rough opening width of 36 inches and a rough opening
height of 60 inches. Rough openings for doors and windows are
made up of studs, pack studs or liners, headers, window sill, and
cripples. The width of the opening will determine how many pack
studs or liners are required. A rule of thumb might be an opening
greater than 3ft and less than 6ft requires two pack studs on each
The size of the header will depend on structural design and length.
Cripples are short studs below the window sill and above the
header. Once the windows and doors are laid out, the wall studs
can be marked on the bottom and top plates. The studs that fall
within the rough openings of the doors and windows will be cripples.
The rough openings are measured from inside to inside of the pack
Wall sections are made up of rough openings for doors and
windows, studs, tees, and corners. The illustrations below show the
end view of a corner and a tee.
Tees are made up of three studs and blocks and are used where
perpendicular walls meet.
Corners are made up of three studs and blocks and are used
where two perpendicular intersecting walls form an outside corner.
Category Construction Glossary